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al-Qistās al-Mustaqīm
The Just Scales

Module Description

Introduction Concerning the Rules of KnowledgeWeek 1What this work addresses, the way it was written. The use of the term ‘Just Scales’ inferred from the Quran and the use of rational and reasoned argument.
The five syllogistic arguments existent in the Quran.
The major premise
Week 2The pure categorical syllogism
Syllogism, i.e. a form of mediate inference in which a conclusion (natijah)  necessarily results from the two given propositions taken together, one of which is the major premise (al-muqaddamat al-kubra) and other the minor premise (al-muqaddamat al-sughra.)
 The middle termWeek 3The middle term; the term which is common to the two premises in a syllogism and functions as a uniting link between them; it is, however, absent from the conclusion.
 The minor premiseWeek 4The minor term, i.e. the term which is used as a subject in the conclusion of a syllogism.
The conditional conjunctive syllogismWeek 5The conditional proposition consisting of two clauses or propositions called antecedent (muqaddam) and consequent (tali) related to each other conditionally like the statement: “If the sun shines, it is day”
The conditional disjunctive syllogism
Week 6 
The conditional disjunctive proposition consisting of two clauses or propositions related to each other as two alternatives or disjunctives which mutually exclude each other like the statement: “Either this number is even, or it is odd”
 The devil’s scale and the Batiniyya’s use of them Week 7The lack of distinction between a term and its application to two different things i.e. ‘greater’ is applied to God and the sun and other devices
The final messenger and scholarly heirs suffice there be ImamsWeek 8Clarifying the difference between the claim of infallible Imams and the Messenger of Allah and the role of scholarly heirs.
Saving from the darkness of  disagreementWeek 9People are of three categories, and each require an approach that will be relative in order for it to be effective.
Forms of analogy and opinion that result in falsity – The ConclusionWeek 10The mistaken use of opinion exemplified in the Mutazilite position regarding God must do that which is only beneficial for the slave. And the falsity of analogy epitomised by those made by anthropomorphist.  – The conclusion – Being mindful not to fall prey to pseudo arguments.

Imam Ghazali is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Abu Hamid Hujjat ai-Islam al-Ghazali al-Tusi

(Imam) Ghazali is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Abu Hamid Hujjat ai-Islam al-Ghazali al-Tusi, the Shafi’i Imam, Proof of Islam, and Sufi adept born in Tabiran, near Tus Gust north of present-day Mashhad, Iran), in 450/1058. The Imam of his time, nicknamed Shafi’i the Second for his legal virtuosity, he was a brilliant intellectual who first studied jurisprudence at Tus and then travelled the Islamic world to Baghdad, Damascus, Jerusalem, Cairo, Alexandria, Mecca, and Medina, taking Sacred Knowledge from its masters, among them the Imam of the Two Sanctuaries Juwayni, with whom he studied until the Imam’s death, becoming at his hands a scholar in Shafi’i law, logic, tenets of faith, debate, and in the rationalistic doctrines of the philosophical schools of his time, which he was later called upon to refute. When Juwayni died, Ghazali debated the Imams and scholars of Baghdad in the presence of the vizier Nizam al-Mulk, who was so impressed that he appointed him to a teaching post at the Nizamiyya Academy in Baghdad, where word of his’ brilliance spread and scholars journeyed to hear him. ...Read More


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